Traffic engineering controls refer to various measures and techniques used to manage and regulate traffic flow on roadways and transportation networks. A few of the most common types of traffic engineering controls are traffic signals, stop and yield signs, speed limits, and traffic calming measures. The selection and implementation of these controls depend on multiple factors like traffic volume in the area and roadway characteristics.
The presence of traffic engineering controls helps keep traffic flowing efficiently through a system, reducing commute times and limiting carbon emissions. It also makes the area much safer for both drivers and pedestrians.
Understanding Traffic Engineering
Traffic engineering refers to the use of engineering principles and techniques to design, analyze, and manage the movement of vehicles and pedestrians on roadways, highways, and transportation networks.
The scope of traffic engineering encompasses various aspects related to the management and control of traffic flow. Some key principles within the scope of traffic engineering include traffic planning, traffic analysis, traffic signal design and timing, and roadway design.
Traffic Engineering Controls: Types and Functions
Regulatory controls are a type of traffic engineering control that regulates the movements of vehicles to keep things running smoothly through the transportation system.
Below are some of the most common regulatory controls:
Stop Signs: Ensuring Intersection Safety
Stop signs are placed at intersections to indicate that drivers must come to a complete stop before proceeding. They are used to assign right-of-way and control traffic movements at locations where traffic signals may not be necessary.
Traffic Signals: Managing Traffic Flow
Traffic signals are one of the most recognizable traffic control devices. They use red, yellow, and green lights to regulate the right-of-way at intersections. Traffic signal timings are designed to optimize traffic flow and minimize delays.
Speed Limits: Promoting Safe Driving Practices
Speed limits are set to regulate vehicle speeds on different types of roadways. They are established based on factors such as road design, traffic conditions, and safety considerations. Speed limit signs are posted to inform drivers of the maximum permissible speed.
Lane Markings: Guiding Traffic Movements
Lane controls include lane markings, arrows, and signs that guide drivers on the appropriate use of lanes. They help in managing lane assignments, lane changes, and lane merges to maintain orderly traffic flow.
Warning controls, including signs, pavement markings, flashing beacons, and variable message signs, are crucial for effectively communicating hazards and providing timely information to drivers. By using these warning controls appropriately, transportation agencies can enhance driver awareness, promote safety, and reduce the risk of accidents on roadways.
Included below are some of the most common warning controls:
Signs and Pavement Markings: Communicating Hazards
Warning signs will often feature symbols, text, or both to indicate things like sharp turns, upcoming bumps in the road, and pedestrian crossings. Pavement markings are markings on the road’s surface like the dashes in the center of a road, arrows at an intersection, or crosswalk lines. Both help increase driver awareness of potential risks and promote safe driving behaviors.
Flashing Beacons: Alerting Drivers to Potential Risks
Flashing beacons are warning devices that use flashing lights to alert drivers to specific hazards or conditions, so they have enough time to properly respond to the potential risk. Some examples of flashing beacons are school zone beacons, railroad crossing beacons, and pedestrian crosswalk beacons.
Variable Message Signs: Providing Real-Time Information
Variable message signs are electronic signs that display real-time information to drivers. They are used to provide important messages and warnings about changing road conditions, hazards, or incidents. These not only warn drivers of issues ahead, but they also give drivers a chance to adjust their plans to avoid delays.
Control Measures for Traffic Flow
There are many control measures traffic engineers can use for directing and regulating traffic flow. These measures keep things efficient and safe as drivers move through transportation systems.
The three most common types of control measures for traffic flow are:
Roundabouts: Enhancing Intersection Efficiency
Roundabouts are circular intersections designed to improve traffic flow and reduce congestion. They replace traditional stop signs or signal-controlled intersections and rely on yield control to manage traffic movements.
Ramp Metering: Regulating Traffic on Highway Entry Ramps
Ramp metering is a traffic management technique used to regulate the flow of vehicles entering a highway or freeway via entry ramps. It involves the use of traffic signals or electronic signs at the entry ramp that control the rate at which vehicles can enter the main highway.
Traffic Calming Measures: Managing Speed and Volume
Traffic calming techniques are employed in residential areas, school zones, and other areas where speed reduction and enhanced safety are desired. These measures may include speed humps, raised crosswalks, chicanes, and narrowing of roadways to slow down traffic.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
Traffic Surveillance Systems: Monitoring Traffic Conditions
ITS technologies, such as variable message signs, traffic cameras, and real-time traffic information systems, provide real-time data and information to drivers, enabling them to make informed decisions and adjust their travel routes accordingly.
Designing and Implementing Traffic Engineering Controls
Traffic Impact Studies: Assessing the Need for Controls
Traffic impact studies are conducted to assess the potential impacts of new developments, land-use changes, or transportation projects on the surrounding transportation network. These studies help determine the need for traffic control measures and identify any necessary mitigation strategies.
Factors Influencing Control Selection
When selecting traffic control measures, several factors should be considered, including traffic volume and composition, roadway characteristics, pedestrian and cyclist activity, safety considerations, and community preferences.
Designing Effective Signage and Markings
Signage and markings play a crucial role in guiding and informing drivers. When designing signage and markings, traffic control engineers need to ensure that their messaging is clear and concise with good visibility to allow the driver time to adjust their speed and lane position. Consistency and uniformity are other major factors to consider as drivers are better able to recognize and obey signage and markings if they’re familiar.
Considerations for Traffic Signal Timing
Traffic signal timing plays a crucial role in optimizing traffic flow and reducing congestion. Traffic engineers need to consider things like intersection geometry and layout, traffic volume, pedestrian traffic, and nearby traffic signals that will need to be coordinated. A traffic demand analysis should be conducted, and the findings looked over as well.
Incorporating ITS Technologies in Control Systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) technologies can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of traffic control systems by using real-time traffic monitoring with sensors and cameras and creating dynamic message signs to give real-time information to drivers.
Data Collection and Analysis
There are many different ways to collect the data needed for the proper analysis of a transportation system. The following are the most common:
Traffic Volume Studies
Traffic volume studies involve collecting data on the number of vehicles passing through a specific location over a given period. These studies help in understanding the traffic demand, identifying peak periods, and evaluating the capacity of roadways and intersections.
Speed and Delay Analysis
Speed and delay analysis focus on evaluating the speeds at which vehicles travel and the delays experienced by drivers at specific locations. This analysis helps in assessing the effectiveness of traffic control measures, identifying areas with excessive congestion or bottlenecks, and identifying potential safety concerns.
Crash Data Analysis
Crash data analysis involves studying historical data on traffic accidents and their characteristics. This analysis helps identify high-crash locations, accident patterns, and contributing factors. Crash data analysis is crucial for identifying areas that require safety improvements, such as enhanced signage, signalization, or geometric modifications to reduce the likelihood of accidents.
Assessing Traffic Control Performance
Assessing traffic control performance through these analyses enables traffic engineers to identify areas of improvement, optimize traffic flow, enhance safety, and make data-driven decisions to effectively manage and regulate traffic.
Level of Service Analysis
Level of Service (LOS) analysis is used to assess the operational quality of traffic flow at a specific location, such as an intersection or a roadway segment. It measures the level of congestion, delays, and overall travel time experienced by drivers. Factors such as traffic volumes, signal timings, lane configurations, and geometric design are considered in the analysis.
Intersection Capacity Analysis
Intersection capacity analysis focuses on evaluating the ability of an intersection to accommodate traffic volumes and provide efficient and safe traffic movements. It considers factors such as the number of lanes, turning movements, signal timings, pedestrian crossings, and geometric design.
Safety Evaluation and Crash Reduction Factors
Safety evaluation and crash reduction analysis involve assessing the safety performance of a specific roadway or intersection. Crash data analysis is an essential component of this assessment. It involves examining historical crash data, identifying high-crash locations, and analyzing crash patterns and contributing factors.
Traffic engineering controls play a crucial role in managing and optimizing the flow of traffic on roadways. These controls are designed to improve the safety, efficiency, and overall performance of transportation systems.
The future of traffic engineering will surely be influenced by technological advances and the new push for sustainability in transportation. By integrating advanced technologies, data-driven decision-making, and sustainable practices, we can create safer, more efficient, and environmentally friendly transportation systems.